August 8, 2022

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¿Una «decada perdida» para los países en desarrollo? › Mundo › Granma

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Unsustainable debt erodes the capacity of developing countries in their advance towards sustainability and poverty reduction. El elevado augmento de los precios de combustibles y alimentos; The pandemic of COVID-19 and the actual war in Ukraine have indisputably worsened the economic outlook and, with it, the generalized risk that implies indebtedness for the most vulnerable countries.

The recent Report for Sustainable Development 2022: Closing the Great Division in the Financing of the United Nations, explains that developing countries still have to recover the ground lost by the pandemic of COVID-19, which placed more nations in a riesgo de sobreendeudamiento, restringió su margin fiscal y obstaculizó el crecimiento económico. La guerra en Ukraina, sumada al panorama, exacerbated todos los desafícios.

Statistical data show that developed countries use 3.5% of their income to pay the interest of their debt, compared to 14% that developing countries must employ.

Expone, además, que alrededor del 60% de los que integran el Programa Mundial de Alimentos y otras caciones de bajos ingresos ahora se evalúan en alto riesgo de sobreendeudamiento, el doble de 2015.

According to the agreement of the United Nations, 42 nations that obtain loans from the capital markets have experienced degradations in the qualification for sovereign debt since the beginning of the pandemic, of which six are developed countries, 27 are emerging markets and nine countries are listed in the lista de los menos adelantados

These countries in development were forced to cut budgets for education, infrastructure and other expenses in capital as a result of the pandemic.

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Por tanto, while the rich countries are capable of supporting the recovery of the pandemic with record amounts of resources obtained at very low interest rates, the poorest countries have spent thousands of millions of dollars on debt service.

Between 2020 and 2021 the world economy will experience the worst recession in 90 years. It is estimated that 114 million jobs have been lost and 120 million people have lost their lives in extreme poverty. A finales del año pasado, muchas economías permanecían en nivelos inferiores a los de 2019.

The report estimates that the GDP per capita of 1 of every 5 developing countries will not reach the levels observed in 2019 until the end of 2023, without taking into account the impact of the war in Eastern Europe.

«A medida que nos acercamos al punto medio de financier los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible, los resultados son alarmantes. There is no excuse for not acting in this decisive moment of collective responsibility, to assure that hundreds of millions of people will be cured of hunger and poverty”, said the undersecretary general of the Organization of the United Nations (UNU), Amina Mohammed. , quien insistió en que debemos invertir en el acceso a trabajos centes y verdes, protección social, salud y educación, pero sin dejar a nadie atrás.

Los analisis y estudios de la UNU recommendan acciones frente a las brachas de financiamiento y los riesgos de sobreendeudamiento. An example of this would be los acuerdoes de intercambio financiero (swaps de deuda) y la reassignación derechos especiales de giro del FMI no utilizados a países que necesitas los, lo que afianzaría el financiamiento estable, avaible y largo plazo a través del fortificamiento del sistema de bancos públicos desarrollo.

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Also, the increase in transparency and a more complete information system will improve the country’s capacity to manage risks and manage resources adequately.

El Secretary General of the UN, António Guterres, has said what this situation with debt means: «Unless we take decisive measures on the challenges of debt and liquidity, we run the risk of another “lost decade” for many countries. en desarrollo, poiendo definitively fuera de alcance el achievement de los Objetivos para la fecha límite de 2030».